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Dayaram Sahani frist discovered Harappa in 1921.

RD Bannerjee discovered Mohenjodaro in 1922.

Geographical Extent

covered part of Punjub, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujrat,Rajasthan, and some part of Westearn UP.

Major sites in Pakistan are Harappa (on Rabi in W.Punjab), Mohenjodaro,(on indus),chanhu -daro,(Sindh) etc in india,major site are Lothal, Rangpur, Surkotda, (Gujrat), Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Banwani (Hissar) and Alamgirpur (Westearn UP)

Town Planning

  • Elaborate town-planning.Its follows the grid system.Roads well cut,dividing the town into large rectangular blocks.

  • Used brunt bricks of good quality.

  • Good drainage system.

  • In Mohenjodaro,a big public bath (Great Bath) measuring 12 m by 7m and 2.4 m deep has been found.


  • Grew Wheat,barley, rai, peas, sesamun, musturd, rice (in Lothal), cotton (frist to produce cotton),dates,melon, etc
  • Use wooden ploughs.

Art and Craft

  • The Harappan culture belongs to the Bronze Age.
  • Potter's wheel was in use.
  • Bronze image of the famous dancing girl (identified as Devadasi) has been found at Mohenjodaro.

Economic Life

  • Barter system was there.16 was the unit of measurement.
  • Harappan seals(made in steatite,had design on one side) and other materials has been found at Mesopotamia.

Religious Life

  • Main object of worship was the mother Godness.but the upper classes preffered a god,nude with two horns,much similar to Pasupati Siva.Represented on the seal is a finger with three horned heads in a yogic posture.He is sarround by the elephant,a tiger and a rhinoceros,and bellow his throne is a bedfellow. Near his feet are two deer.Pasupathinath represented male deity.
  • Phallus (lingam) and yoni worship was also prevalent.
  • Many trees (pipal), animals(bull), birds( dove,pigeon) and stones ware worship.
  • At Kalibagan and Lothal, fire alrts have been found.
  • Dead bodies ware placed in the north -south orientation.


  • The script is pictographic,not deciphered



Excavations at the site have led to following specific findings:

  1. two rows and six granaries with brick platforms.12 granaries togather had the same area as the Great Granary at Mohenjodaro.
  2. evidence of coffin burial and cemetry 'H' culture (two antelopes and hunter on the postheard from a cemetry have been discover.
  3. single room barrack.
  4. evidence of direct trade interaction with Mesopotamia.
  5. a red sandstone male torso.
  6. stone symble of female genitals


  1. a college, a multi-pillared assembly hall
  2. the Great Bath (the most importan public place of the city)
  3. a large granary
  4. a piece of woven cotton along with spindle whorls and needles.
  5. superficial evidence of horse.
  6. a post stone fragment of Mesopotamia Origin.
  7. evidence of direct trade contact with Mesopotamia.
  8. a bronze dancing girl.
  9. a bearded man and a seal with a picture suggesting Pasupathi Mahadeva.

Kalibangan was an important Harappan city. The word 'Kalibangan' means 'black bangles'. A ploughed field was the most important discoyof the early excavation. Later excavation at Kalibagan made the following specific discoveries.

  1. a wooden furrow.
  2. seven fire altars in the row on platform,suggesting the practice of the cult of sacrifice.
  3. bones of camel.
  4. a tiled floor which bears interesting design of cercles.
  5. a human head with long oval eyes, thick lower lips, receding forehead and straight pointed nose.
  6. evidence of two type of burials:

  •  burials in a circuler graves and
  •  burials in a rectangular grave.


Invasion of the Aryans, recurrent floods,social breakup of Harappans, earthquake,  major ecological changes etc.are listed as possible causes.

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