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General Science For Compititive Exams : Important Scientific Instruments And Use



GENERAL KNOWLEDGE FOR COMPETITIVE EXAMS : X-RAYS AND SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS

            X- RAYS

X-Rays are Electromagnetic Radiations having wavelength from a fraction of an Angstrom to about 100 Å.They were discovered by Roentgen during his studies on the electrical discharge phenomena ingases – he found that an unknown radiation was produced when electrons collided with the walls of the tubes.Properties of X-Rays.
*.They ionize the material through which they pass.
*.They affect photographic plates in the same manner as visible light.
*.They cause fluorescence in certain chemical compounds like zinc sulphide
*.They penetrate matter and are absorbed as theypass through it.


Important Scientific Instrument

INSTRUMENTS               USE

Altimeter   -  It measures altitudes and is used in aircrafts
Ammeter   - It measures strength of electric current (in amperes)
Anemomter - It measures force and velocity of wind
Audiometer - It measures intensity of sound
Audiophone   - It is used for improving imperfect sense of hearing
Barograph - It is used for continous recording of atmospheric pressure
Barometer - It measures atmospheric pressure
Binocular - It is used to view distant objects
Bolometer  -   It measures heat radiation
Calorimeter   - It measures quantity of heat
Carburettor    - It is used in an internal combustion -  engine for charging air with petrol vapour
Cardiogram -   It traces movements of the heart, recorded on a cardiograph
Chronometer -   It determines longitude of a place kept onboard ship
Cinematography - It is an instrument used in cinema making to throw on screen and enlarged image of photograph
Crescograph -   It measures the growth in plants
Cyclotron - A charged particle accelerator which can accelerate charged particies to high energies.
Dynamo - It converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Dynamometer  - It measures electrical power
Electrometer -   It measures electricity
Electroscope - It detects presence of an electric charge
Endoscope -  It examines internal parts of the body
Eudiometer - A glass tube for measuring volume changes in chemical reactions between gases
Fathometer - It measures the depth of the ocean
Galvanometer - It measures the electric current of low magnitude
Hydrometer - It measures the specific gravity of liquids
Hygrometer - It measures humidity in air
Hydrophone - It  measures sound under water
Kynograph - It graphically records physiological movements (Blood pressure and heart beat)
Lactometer - It determines the purity of milk
Manometer - It measures the pressure of gases
Mariner's compass - It is an instrument used by the sailors to determine the direction
Microphone - It converts the sound waves into electrical vibrations and to magnity the sound
Microscope - It is used to obtain magnified view of small objects
Odometer - An instrument by which the distance covered by wheeled vehicles is measured
Phonograph - An instrument for producing sound
Photometer - The instrument compares the luminous intensity of the source of light
Periscope -  It is used to view objects above sea level (used in sub-marines)
Potentiometer - It is used for comparing electromotive force of cells
Pyrometer - It measures very high temperature
Radar - It is used for detecting the direction and range of an approaching plane by means of radio microwaves
Rain Gauge - An apparatus for recording rainfall at a particular place
Radiometer - It measures the emission of radiant energy
Refractometer - It measures refractive index
Saccharimeter -  It measures the amount of sugar in the solution
Seismograph - It measures the intensity of earthquake shocks
Salinometer - It determines salinity of solution
Sextant - This is used by navigators to find the latitude of a place by measuring the elevation above the horizon of the sun or another star
Spectrometer -   It is an instrument for measuring the energy distribution of a particular type of radiation
Speedometer -   It is an instrument placed in a vehicle to record its speed
Sphygmomanometer  -  It measures
blood pressure
Spherometer -   It measures the curvatures of surfaces
Stereoscope -   It is used to view two dimensional pictures
Stethoscope -   An instrument which is used by the doctors to hear and analyse heart and lung sounds
Straboscope -   It is used to view rapidly moving objects
Tachometer - An instument used in measuring speeds of aeroplanes and motor boats
Teleprinter -  This instrument receives and sends typed messages form one place to another
Telescope - It views distant objects in space
Theodolite - It measures horizontal and vertical angles
Thermometer - This instrument is used for the measurement of temperatures
Thermostat - It regulates the temperature at a particular point
Viscometer - It measures the viscosity of liquids
Voltmeter - It measurs the electric potential difference between two points


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